Eksali - December-February for the 12-month crop
Pre-seasonal - October-November for the 15 to 16 month crop
Adsali - July-August for the 18-month crop
The normal planting season is October-December. Delay in planting reduces cane yield. Planting should not be delayed beyond February in the plains. In hilly tracts where sugarcane is cultivated under rain fed conditions, planting should be done after decrease of heavy rains.
A total rainfall between 650 and 750 mm is optimum provided the distribution is right, abundant in the months of vegetative growth followed by a dry period for ripening.
28° to 32°c. It slows down below 25°, reaches plateau between 30°-34°, is reduced above 35° and practically stops when the temperature is above 38°
Co-86032, Co-VSI 9805, Co-VSI-03102, Co-2003V-46, VSI-434
|Variety||Co-86032||Co VSI 03102||Co VSI 9805||VSI 434||Co-2003 V-46|
|Pol in Cane (%)||14.24||15.72||15||15.88||15.25|
In wetlands, preparatory cultivation by ploughing the land and bringing the soil to fine tilth could not be done.
Sugarcane can be grown in all types of soils ranging from Sandy loam to Clay loam soils. Soil extremely well drained having pH of 7.5 to 8.5 and optimum organic content is best suited for sugarcane cultivation
Integrated nutrient management with organic manures and inorganic fertilizers, crop rotation, inter-cropping and trash mulching.
Soil having organic content more than or equal to 1% are well suited for sugarcane cultivation.
Apply FYM at 12.5 t/ha or compost 25 t/ha or filter press mud at 37.5 t/ha before the last ploughing under garden land conditions. In wetlands this may be applied along the furrows and Incorporated well.
Azospirillum: Prepare the slurry with 10 packets (2000g)/ha of Azospirillum with sufficient water and soak the sets in the slurry for 15minutes before planting.
Fungicide: The sets should be soaked in Carbendanzim (100 gram in 100 litres of water)
Straight and standing, no side shooting, should be certified with good germination capability and free of insect & diseases. Would be aged of 9-10 months.
|Raise nursery crop during||Main field planting|
|June||December - January (early season)|
|July||February - March (Mid season)|
|August||April - May (Late season)|
|Dec – Apr||June - September (Special season)|
Within 7 to 14 days.
An average crop of sugarcane yielding 100 t/ha removes 208kg of N, 53kg of P, 280kg of K, 30 kg of Sulphur, 3.4kg of iron, 1.2 kg of manganese, 0.6 kg of copper respectively from the soil.
|At time of planting||25||57.5||57.5||34||85||85||40||85||85|
|6-8 weeks after planting||100||-||-||136||-||-||160||-||-|
|12-16 weeks after planting||25||-||-||34||-||-||40||-||-|
To facilitate mechanization and to improve the cane yield under wide rows, a new technology, ‘dual row planting’ is developed. In this method, broad furrows are formed at a spacing of 150 cm and in the middle of the furrows sugarcane sets are planted in two rows adopting a spacing of 30 cm between them.
To grow more than one intercrop, to earn more income with the same land and to generate more scope of utilizing labour force.
In STP (Spaced transplanting) method single eyed sets are used for planting. Either direct sets or seedlings raised in polybag nurseries are transplanted into the field after 45-50 days. For this STP or single eyed set method 0.75-1 MT seed per acre is required. This method saves seed cost by 60-70%. In this method distance between two sets kept at 30cm.
In this technique, the bud along with a portion of the nodal region is chipped off using a bud chipping machine. This bud is used for planting.
Fill the gaps with sprouted sets, if any, 30 days after planting once the germination is completed.
The irrigation intervals in each phase are given below:
Stages Days of irrigation interval Sandy soil Clay Soil
Tillering phase (36 to 100 days): 8 -10 days
Grand growth phase (101 - 270 days): 8 to 10 days
Maturity phase (271 – harvest): 10 to 14 days
90 to 120 days.
If the parasitic weed striga is a problem, post-emergence application of 2,4-D sodium salt @ 1.25 kg/ha in 500 litre of water/ha may be done. 2, 4-D spraying should be avoided when neighbouring crop is cotton or bhendi. Apply 20% urea also for the control of striga as direct spray.
For weed management in sugarcane, Metribuzin 1 kgai/ha or Ametryn 2 kgai/ha as pre- emergent is an effective. Herbicide Acrazine 2 kgai/ha as pre-emergent. Either of this herbicide should be coupled with application 2,4D @ 1kgai/ha at 60 DAP.
Application of Actrazine 2 kgai/ha pre- emergent plus one hoeing at 45 days after ratoon initiation. OR
Metribuzine 1 kgai/ha pre-emergent coupled with 2,4 D 1kgai/ha 45 days after ratoon initiation. OR
Trash mulching in alternate row plus hoeing at 1 and 6th week after ratoon initiation.
As per the soil type intercrops such as Soyabean, Cowpea, Groundnut, Blackgram and vegetables like Chilli, Cauliflower can be taken as intercrop.
It helps to reduce water demand and other input for sugarcane crop.
Sugarcane is generally grown after the harvest of cotton, rice, maize, potato, wheat, etc. in sequence under 2 to 3 years rotation.
The operation of tying the leaves together using the bottom dry and green leaves is known as propping. It is primarily done to check lodging of cane. Propping can be either done for each row or two rows can be brought together and tied. It is done at the age of 210 days of the crop.
Cultivating in high land; using recommended variety; early planting; using recommended fertilizer dose; supplying adequate irrigation; appropriate management and management of insects & diseases.
It requires 3 to 5 labourers to cut bud chips as seed material required for one hectare.
White fly, Root grub, Borer, Scale insects, Woolly aphid, Mealy bugs, and Leaf hoppers
Red rot is the major serious disease of sugarcane. Smut is the major diseases of sugarcane.
When an ETL (Economic Threshold Level) of 15% dead heart is reached apply any one of the following insecticides:
Yes. The trash acts as mechanical barrier to the tiny and just emerged shoot borer larvae which have to move from one clump to another only through the soil surface as leaves of adjacent clumps will not touch each other during that age of crop. Moreover, the trash will encourage development of general predators such as spiders, carabid beetles etc which increase chances of predation of the moths and the dispersing larvae. However, the possibility of cut worm or rat damage in mulched fields is more.
Application of chlorpyriphos @ 5 lit/ha with 1500-1800 lit water in the furrow during planting controls termite in Sugarcane.
Application of granular systemic insecticides after two days of irrigation may reduce the infestation of aphids even up to 30 days. During acute incidence, spray any one of the following insecticides once or twice in affected patches:
Acephate(75SP): 2gm/lit (or) Chlorpyrifos(25EC): 2ml/lit (or) Monocrotophos(36WSC): 2ml/lit
Avoid ratoons in infested fields, Provide adequate irrigation, since under inadequate soil moisture conditions, the pest appear in the root zone. Apply lindane(1.3D) 125 kg/ha near the root zone and give one more round 30 days later
The disease is mainly spread by the preparation of setts from diseased cane. Bottom portion of the cane left over in the field after harvest, irrigation, rain and wind also spread the disease causing fungi. Ratooning of the affected cane also spread the disease further.
Adopt sett treatment with Carbendazim before planting (Carbendazim 50 WP (0.5 gm in 1 litre of water) or Carbendazim 25 DS (1gm in 1 litre of water) along with Urea (10 gm in 1 litre of water) for 5 minutes) to avoid the spread of red rot disease in sugarcane.
While cutting partially infected canes, cut ends will show reddening patches.
During monsoon seasons the spread is more
Monsoon months with cyclonic winds favour spread of the disease very fast. Flooding of sugarcane fields over large areas favour dispersal of inoculums through flood water. Even a limited seed cane infection favours disease built up in plant and ratoon crops.
Healthy seed, crop rotation, optimizing soil moisture status and reducing root borer infestation are recommended to control wilt in an integrated approach.
The constituents of the normal cane juice fall within the following limits:
Water: 70 to 88%
Sucrose: 10 to 21%
Reducing sugars: 0.3 to 3%
Organic matter other than sugar: 0.5 to 1%
Inorganic compounds: 0.2 to 0.6%
Nitrogenous bodies: 0.5 to 1%
Small mill test: the juice is analysed for brix, sucrose and purity values in laboratory using brix hydrometer spindle and polarimeter. A minimum purity value of above 85% indicates its suitability for harvest.
The above method of issuing cutting order helps to crush the cane of uniform maturity and avoids cane of immaturity, thus leading to improvement in sugar recovery to the tune 0.2 to 0.5 per cent over and above the existing sugar recovery figure.
A well ripened harvested crop, may lose its sugar within a few days after harvest, which tends to increase further due to high ambient temperature, pre-harvest burning, harvest and transportation injuries and microbial infestation. However, not much harm is caused if the cane is crushed within 24 hours of harvesting. Stalling beyond 24 hours results in considerable loss in cane weight due to moisture loss and reduction in juice sucrose content due to inversion. Such juice also creates problems in processing. The losses increased with the increase in duration of stalling.
Stunted inter-nodes, drying of bottom leaves (but not top leaves or crown) and inward rolling of top leaves are some indicators of drought effect.
Cane yield is affected more than sucrose %juice. Since drought reduces cane elongation (about 30%) yield loss is more.
Early stages of growth, particularly the active tillering period is very critical in drought situations
Deep trench system of planting is recommended for improving sugarcane production under early drought and late waterlogged conditions. Planting in deep trenches with gypsum (2.5 t/ha), FYM (25 t/ha) and pressmud (12.5 t/ha) application improves the cane yield over normal method of planting under these situations.Further improvement of yield under trench system of planting could be obtained by application of 25% excess nitrogen.
Factors like variety, nutrient management practices, stage of maturity, soil condition, growing condition, time and method of harvesting, and time of transport to mill, incidence of pests and diseases etc. have profound influence on the accumulation of sucrose and other non-sugars in cane juice.
Among the major nutrients, nitrogen plays a great role in not only increasing the yield but also in influencing juice-quality. Excess application or late application of nitrogen (usually beyond 90-120 days) depress the juice sucrose content and increase the non-sugar component of juice leading to poor recoveries.
High tissue nitrogen leads to continued negative growth and thus delays maturity. It produces late tillers and water shoots. It increases sheath moisture and soluble nitrogen content in the juice.
Thus low sucrose, high reducing sugar contents and lower purities are common under excess nitrogen. This also leads to higher molasses. Nitrogen application of about 250-300 kg N ha-1 is optimum under the tropical conditions.